Neuro-linguistic programming (or NLP) is an interpersonal communication model applied in psychotherapy and other contexts of communication.
Critics argue that the basic theoretical assumptions of NLP and strong claims of efficacy presented in books, workshops and promotional material have not been accompanied by empirical research.
The majority of psychological and experimental research published in the 1980s in The Journal of Counseling Psychology was not supportive of the claims that matching preferred representational systems and sensory predicates enhanced the client-counselor relationship. Critics also argue that the lack of empirical support and exaggerated claims indicate questionable science, pseudoscience, New Age or outdated psychotherapeutic technique. While there have been some efforts within NLP to improve its practice, recent research is spread thinly across various disciplines and the field remains splintered.
It attempts to observe naturally self-taught expertise, and then model the processes and habitual patterns that experts intuitively use on the assumption that those behaviours were responsible for their results.
Basic assumptions of NLP draw from aspects of neurology (“neuro-“), transformational grammar (“linguistics”) and cybernetics (“programming”).
It has often been promoted as an art and science of effective communication and defined as `the study of the structure of subjective experience`. Others put more emphasis on the tools, techniques and applications specific to contexts such as psychotherapy, business management and communications training, motivational seminars, personal development, and teaching.
Much of NLP`s philosophy, worldview and approach was laid out in seminar transcriptions, for example, Frogs into Princes and early technical books, for example, Structure of Magic vol. I & II by Richard Bandler, or tutorial like I Can Make You Rich by Paul McKenna.
In 1980 Bandler`s company “Not Ltd” had reported earnings of more than US$800,000 and he and his then wife were living an opulent lifestyle.
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